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A Vietnam War Timeline
Map of French Indochina

1. Tonkin 2. Annam 3. Cochinchine
4. Cambodia 5. Laos
The history of the conflict in Vietnam begins in the 19th century. During the reign of Napoleon III, France takes full control of Vietnam, which in effect became a French colony. This explains the heavy French influence that permeate the Vietnamese culture (note that the Engineer is half-French and half-Vietnamese).
1858:
France occupies Da Nang.
1859:
France conquers Saigon and the three southern Vietnamese provinces of Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh and Dinh Tuong.
1862:
The Empire of Vietnam under the Nguyen Dynasty cedes these southern territories to the French.
1864:
The territories are declared the French colony of Cochinchina. The northern territories of Tonkin and Annam become French protectorates.
1887:

French Governor General's Palace, Hanoi
These three Vietnamese provinces, Cochinchina, Tonkin and Annam, plus Cambodia and Laos become the Federation of French Indochina. The French Governor General's office is in Hanoi. The commercial center of the federation is Saigon, the capital of Cochinchina
1890:

Ho Chi Minh
Nguyen Sinh Cung is born in central Vietnam. This son of a teacher and medicine man will grow up to become the leader of the revolt against the French. He takes the name Ho Chi Minh (translated roughly as "Bringer of Light") and becomes a legend among his people as a leader and a fighter.
1930:
Ho Chi Minh organizes the Indochinese Communist Party
1940:
After France falls to Germany, Japan seeks passage through French Indochina (now under Vichy French control) to attack Chinese forces near the border. French authorities in Hanoi refuse, prompting Japan to launch a ground attack on the French border forts at Long-Son and Dong-Dang.
1941:
After traveling in Europe and Asia for decades, and becoming influenced by the Communist doctrine of Marx and Lenin, Ho Chi Minh returns to Vietnam and forms the Viet Minh, a Vietnamese abbreviation for the "League of the Revolution and Independence of Vietnam" (later to become the North Vietnamese army, the Vietcong, or "The Cong" as they were known to American soldiers). Ho is held in reverence by his followers, called simple "Uncle Ho."
1944-45:
Vietnamese Communists, led by Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap, initiate a resistance movement against the Japanese. The Viet Minh sought independence from both Japan and France.
1945:
August 14- Japan surrenders to the Allies bringing an end to World War II. Control of Indochina is returned to France.
September 2- Ho Chi Minh establishes the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN) in the northern provinces of Tonkin and Annam (North Vietnam).
1946:
The First Indochina War (1945-1954) begins between the French colonial forces and the Viet Minh.
1950:
January 14- Ho Chi Minh declares that the area under his leadership, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, is the only legal government. His government, now seen as "North Vietnam" is recognized by the Soviet Union and China. The United States and Britain continue to recognize the puppet government in "South Vietnam." The lines for international involvement in the conflicts of Vietnam are drawn.
June 26- President Harry Truman grants $15 million in military aid to the French
1954:
March 13- The French forces are defeated by the Viet Minh at the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
July 21- The Geneva Conference recognizes the 17th parallel as a "provisional military demarcation line" temporarily dividing the country into two states, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north and the State of Vietnam (under Emperor Bao Dai) in the south.
1955:
Emperor Dao Dai is deposed by his prime minister, Ngo Dinh Diem, who establishes the Republic of Vietnam with himself as president. Diem's refuses to hold reunification elections in 1956 as stipulated by the Geneva Conference.
 

 
 
US President Eisenhower and South Vietnam President Diem
President Eisenhower reaffirms support of South Vietnam with $100 million in aid. United States agrees to train the South Vietnamese army.
 
1956:
Ho Chi Minh authorizes the Viet Minh cadres still in the south to begin a "low level" insurgency consisting mostly of the kidnaping and murder of local government officials.
1959:
The Second Indochina War (1959-1975) begins when North Vietmam's Central Committee issues a secret resolution authorizing an "armed struggle" against the South Vietnamese military.
 

 

Ho Chi Minh Trail
Hanoi dispatches the newly-established 559th Transportation Group south to improve and maintain a system of roads and trails through neighboring Laos and Cambodia to be used to route men and supplies into South Vietnam: the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Two Americans are killed and one wounded during a Viet Minh attack 20 miles north of Saigon.
1960:
John F. Kennedy becomes President of the United States. As he leaves office, Eisenhower warns him of the potential danger in Vietnam.
1961-62:
 

President Kennedy News Conference
March 1961
United States supplies South Vietnam with more equipment and advisers. American advisers increase from 700 to 12,000.
1963:
November 2- President Diem is ousted (and murdered) by a military coup.
November 22- President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, succeeded by Lyndon Johnson. By the end of the year 15,000 American military advisers are in South Vietnam and $500 million in aid is given to the South Vietnamese government.
1964:
 

North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats attack the USS Maddox.
Photograph taken from the USS Maddox during the engagement.
August 2- North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the American destroyer USS Maddox in the Tonkin Gulf.
August 7-- Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions giving President Johnson extraordinary power to act in Vietnam.
1965:
 

Operation Rolling Thunder
In response to continued attacks on American installations, President Johnson initiates Operation Rolling Thunder: sustained bombing of North Vietnam.
March 8- First American troops land in Vietnam; by December, American troop forces reach 200,000.
1966-67:
Bombing of North Vietnam continues. American troop strength reached 500,000. Sustained bombing and fighting destroy much of Vietnam, creating a large population of poor and homeless people. Many flee to the relative safety of the cities, where (as shown in the first act of Miss Saigon) women were often driven into prostitution.
 

South Vietnam President Nguyem Van Thieu
Nguyen Van Thieu, trained in France and the U.S. becomes President of South Vietnam bringing an end to a succession of military juntas.
1968:
 

Tet Offensive
January 30- The Tet Offensive begins as the Vietcong attack over 100 South Vietnamese cities.
Richard Nixon is elected to the presidency.
1969:
June 8- President Nixon announces the withdrawal of 25,000 combat troops.
September 3- Ho Chi Minh dies in Hanoi at the age of 79.
1970-71:
 

Anti War Protest
Anti-War Protests continue in the U.S., while American troop withdrawal continues in Vietnam.
 

Mary Ann Vecchio kneels beside the body of student Jeffrey Miller
Kent State University
 
May 4, 1970- Four students are killed by the Ohio National Guard during an Anti-War Protest at Kent State University.
1972:
North Vietnam launches the Easter Offensive, a massive conventional invasion of South Vietnam. Nixon announces intensification of American bombing of North Vietnam.
November 7- Nixon is re-elected in a landslide.
1973:
 

Le Duc Tho (North Vietnam) and Henry Kissinger (US)
at the Paris Peace Talks
 
After nearly two years of negotiations, many held in secret, cease-fire agreements between the United States (with Henry Kissinger as U. S. negotiator) and the North Vietnam government are signed in Paris.
March 29- The last American troops leave Vietnam, leaving behind extensive embassy personnel.
1974:
South Vietnam President Thieu declares that the war has begun again. With American troops gone. Communist forces plan to resume fighting.
August 9- Nixon resigns in the midst of the Watergate scandal, Gerald Ford becomes President.
1975:
Communist forces begin to capture provinces in South Vietnam, moving toward Saigon.
 

President Ford says the War is "finished."
 
April 25- South Vietnam President Thieu leaves Saigon
 

The Evacuation from the US Embassy, Saigon
 
April 29- The last Americans leave Saigon in the largest helicopter evacuation ever recorded. A fleet of seventy helicopters fly 1000 Americans and 6000 Vietnamese out of Saigon, leaving thousand behind.
April 30- Communist forces take over Saigon, changing the name to "Ho Chi Minh City."
1976:
 

President Carter Pardons Draft Evaders
 
Jimmy Carter elected President, pardons most of the 10,000 Vietnam War draft evaders.
1978:
North Vietnamese forces, still in control of Saigon, celebrate the Third Anniversary of Reunification.
1982:
 

Vietnam War Memorial
 
November 11- The Vietnam Veteran Memorial is unveiled in Washington.
Production Statistics
 
Miss Saigon has won 30 major theatre awards including three Tony Awards, four Drama Desk Awards, three Outer Critics Circle Awards and one Theatre World Award.
The original Miss Saigon is one of the most spectacular and technically complex productions ever staged. 266 people worked on the London production at each performance and of those only 47 appeared in front of the audience.
Internationally, 27 companies have opened Miss Saigon in 25 countries and 246 cities.
 
Miss Saigon has been translated into 12 different languages.
The original Miss Saigon played 21,000 performances worldwide giving a total audience figure of over 33 million people.
There have been 11 cast recordings of Miss Saigon. The original London recording was awarded a gold disc for selling 150,000 copies within three days of its release and has subsequently gone platinum. The Miss Saigon German cast recording was made a 'goldene cd' in July 1998 when it sold 250,000 copies.
The Bui Doi Fund was established, whereby the proceeds of a certain number of house seats at each performance of the show around the world would be donated to various Southeast Asian refugee relief programs and organizations. A total of $3.5 million has been distributed to charities throughout the world by the Bui Doi Fund.
The Broadway cast of Miss Saigon has raised more than $1.1 million through various fund-raising activities for Broadway Cares / Equity Fights AIDS during the show's run.

Detailed Synopsis

Act 1

The story begins in May 1975 in a Vietnamese club, a few days before the fall of Saigon. It is Kim's first day as a prostitute, and she is greeted by the Engineer, the French-Vietnamese pimp who owns the club. Backstage, all the girls get ready for the night's show and jeer at Kim's naiveté as they help her get dressed. ("Overture").

The show starts at the club, and the American Marines and Vietnamese prostitutes party together ("The Heat is on in Saigon"). The Marines know that they are losing the war and are out to have one last fling before leaving Vietnam. We are introduced to Chris (a young, disenchanted Marine who is disgusted with the club scene) and his army friend John. The girls flaunt themselves at the Marines, competing for the title of "Miss Saigon." The winner will be raffled off to a Marine, and in the prostitutes' minds, taken away to America and a better life. Each prostitute takes a turn raunchily trying to impress the marines, and when Kim takes her turn, her innocence and inexperience catch Chris's eye. Gigi, the sexiest dancer, wins the crown for the evening and begs the marine who won the raffle to take her back to America. He refuses and gets annoyed at her cajoling.

The scene freezes as all of the prostitutes reflect upon their dreams of men who will be good to them, and a better life in America ("Movie in my Mind"). John, noticing Chris' infatuation with Kim, talks to the Engineer and buys the virgin Kim and Chris a room for the night ("The Transaction"). Kim is reluctant and shy in being a prostitute for the first time, but introduces herself to Chris, and they slow-dance to a tune on a solo saxophone. Suddenly, Chris brusquely shoves money at her and tells her she doesn't belong in the nightclub. He tells her to leave, but the Engineer interferes, thinking that Chris doesn't like Kim. Chris affirms that he likes her, so Kim silently leads him to her room ("The Dance").

In the middle of the night, Chris watches Kim sleep. Chris has hated everything in Vietnam, but is completely enchanted with Kim, and asks God why he had to find someone that he would miss right before leaving ("Why God Why?"). When Kim wakes up, Chris tries to give her money but she refuses, telling him that it is her first time sleeping with a man ("This Money's Yours"). Chris doesn't believe her, and asks to know more. Kim tells him the story of how her parents died. Touched, Chris tells her that she doesn't need to sell herself at the club, because he wants her to stay with him. The two fall madly in love with each other ("Sun and Moon").

Chris calls John ecstatically on the telephone, announcing that he is taking leave to spend time with Kim. John tells him he is crazy and will get himself killed because the Viet Cong are closing in on Saigon. America is in the process of sending people home and retreating before Saigon is captured. Chris begs John to cover for him for a day, and John reluctantly agrees ("The Telephone Song"). Chris meets up with the Engineer for a pre-arranged trade for Kim, but the Engineer tries to weasel an America visa into the deal, as many Vietnamese are trying to escape before the Vietcong arrive. Chris refuses, and the Engineer agrees (at gunpoint) to the original arrangement for Kim ("The Deal").

Kim and the bargirls hold a wedding ceremony for Chris and Kim ("Dju Vui Vai"). During the celebration, Thuy, Kim's cousin and husband by arranged marriage, barges in to rescue her and take her home. He is extremely hurt and angered when he finds her marrying another man ("Thuy's Arrival"). Chris declares "This girl is mine!" and the two men pull out guns and confront each other over Kim. Kim sides with Chris, telling Thuy that their arranged marriage as children is now null because her parents (who promised her to him) are dead. Thuy is furious and curses them all, declaring that all Americans and prostitutes will be gone or dead in the near future, before storming out. Kim is devastated and believes Chris will leave her. Chris says that he will leave Vietnam, but that he is going to take Kim with him. Chris and Kim cling to each other in a dance to a cheesy club song about the "last night of the world," but the song holds extra weight because for the the two of them, it really is the last night of the world ("Last Night of the World").

The story moves forward three years to 1978, Saigon (now renamed Ho Chi Minh City), where a street festival is taking place to celebrate the third anniversary of the reunification of Vietnam and the defeat of the Americans ("Morning of the Dragon"). Thuy, who is a commissar in the new government, has ordered his soldiers to find the Engineer. We discover that the Engineer is still alive, and is still his corrupt and opportunistic self, despite being "re-educated" by the new communist regime. Thuy orders the Engineer to find Kim, who disappeared when the Communists shut down the bars, and bring her back to him.

Kim has been left behind by Chris, and has been living in hiding in an impoverished area. She is still completely in love with Chris and fiercely believes that he will come back to Vietnam to rescue her. Simultaneously, we see Chris sleeping in bed with his new American wife, Ellen. Ellen loves Chris deeply, but longs to know about the past that haunts him, as he suddenly sits up in bed shouting Kim's name. Ellen comforts him back to sleep, and the two women both swear their devotion to Chris at opposite ends of the earth ("I Still Believe").

The Engineer locates Kim and brings Thuy to her. Thuy explains that he has searched three years for her, and asks her to come with him and become his wife. She refuses, devoted to Chris in spite of his absence. Kim shocks Thuy by introducing him to Tam, her three year old son fathered by Chris. Infuriated, Thuy calls Kim a traitor and Tam an enemy, and tries to kill Tam with a knife. Kim pulls out Chris's gun and is forced to shoot Thuy to protect Tam. Thuy dies, with Kim cradling his body. Kim flees with Tam as the street parade continues outside ("You Will Not Touch Him").

Kim runs to the Engineer and tells him what she has done ("If You Want to Die in Bed", "Kim & Engineer"). The Engineer wants nothing to do with it and refuses to help her, until she reveals that Chris is Tam's father. Enchanted, the Engineer is immediately allured by the boy, whom he views as his passport to the United States. He tells Kim that from now on, he is the boy's uncle, and that he will lead them to Bangkok. Kim swears to Tam that she would sacrifice herself to see him have a better life, and the three set out on a ship with other suffering refugees ("I'd Give My Life for You").

Act 2

1978, Atlanta, Georgia. John now works for an aid organization whose mission is to connect Bui-Doi (children conceived during the war and left in Vietnam) with their American fathers. In Vietnam, Bui-Doi are subject to prejudice, easily identifiable by their Eurasian faces. John is speaking at a conference, in which he and other veterans plead with their audience to do their obligation as fathers and give aid ("Bui Doi"). After the presentation, John pulls Chris aside, claiming he has important news. John tells Chris that Kim is still alive, which Chris is relieved to hear after years of having nightmares of her dying. However, John goes on to tell Chris about Tam, which is less joyous news as it complicates Chris's current situation-- his wife Ellen doesn't know about Kim. John urges Chris to go to Bangkok with Ellen to meet with Kim, and Chris resolves to finally tell Ellen about Kim before leaving ("The Revelation").

1978, Bangkok. The Engineer has been reduced to working as a hustler enticing tourists to enter sleazy clubs, where Kim works as a dancer ("What a Waste"). Chris, Ellen and John have all traveled to Bangkok in search of Kim. John walks into the club, and is reunited with Kim and the Engineer. Kim is stunned to see John and is thrilled to hear that Chris is in Bangkok. John attempts to gently break it to Kim that Chris is remarried, but before he can get the truth out, Kim interrupts, saying that she already knows the story and to take her to America with Chris. John marvels at Kim's absolute faith in Chris and doesn't have the heart to break the devastating news to her. He promises to bring Chris to her ("Please").

While John goes to bring Chris to Kim, the Engineer tells Kim to go find Chris herself because he doesn't trust that Chris will really come ("Chris is Here"). As Kim prepares to find Chris, she is haunted by the ghost of Thuy. Thuy taunts Kim, claiming that Chris will betray her like he did the night Saigon fell. Kim suffers an intense, horrible flashback to that night ("Kim's Nightmare").

1975, Saigon. Chris and Kim have made plans to escape Vietnam together as the Vietcong approach and Saigon becomes increasingly chaotic. Chris is called to work at the embassy and Kim wants to go with him, but he leaves his gun with her and tells her to pack first, reassuring her that they have plenty of time before they have to leave. Almost immediately after Chris enters the embassy, the gates are closed. Orders from Washington are for a total and complete evacuation of the remaining Americans. The Ambassador orders that no more Vietnamese are allowed into the Embassy. Aware of the situation, Kim reaches the gates of the Embassy, but she is only one of an entire mob of terrified Vietnamese trying to bribe, cajole, and climb their way in. Meanwhile, Chris unsuccessfully tries to call Kim at her room, and is about to go out into the hysterical crowd to look for her. The Americans refuse to let Chris out and John is eventually forced to punch Chris in the face to stop him from leaving. Chris gets into the last helicopter leaving Saigon as Kim watches from behind the gate. Devastated, Kim pledges her love to Chris against all odds. The helicopter takes off with Chris screaming Kim's name.

1978, Bangkok. Kim finds herself back in her room after her flashback, and joyfully dresses in the wedding clothes she was wearing when she and Chris wed ("Sun and Moon: Reprise"). Kim goes to Chris's hotel room, but finds only a woman there when she enters; it is Ellen. Ellen is mortified when she realizes that the woman is Kim, and is forced to tell Kim that she is Chris's wife. Kim is shocked and heartbroken, and refuses to believe Ellen's assertion. Her dreams for Tam's new life in America are shattered when Ellen voices refusal to take Tam to the U.S., wishing instead to help Kim financially from a distance. Infuriated and in denial, Kim demands that Chris must come tell her these things to her face ("Room 317"). Ellen is very upset after the confrontation; she thought that Kim was just a short meaningless fling for Chris, and comes to realize that he lied to her. She feels bad for Kim, but expresses that she loves Chris and will fight to keep him ("Now That I've Seen Her"). Chris returns to the room with John, having not found Kim, and is horrified when Ellen tells him of the angry encounter with Kim. Ellen accuses Chris of not telling her the truth and doubts his love for her. She issues an ultimatum: Kim or her. Chris reassures Ellen that he loves her and tearfully tells her of his experience in Vietnam. They pledge their love for each other, and decide to leave Tam and Kim in Bangkok and offer them monetary support from America, patronizingly rationalizing that Kim "is smart, she'll understand" ("The Confrontation").

The Engineer, who still sees Tam as his ticket to the U.S., dreams extravagantly of the new life he will lead in America. He, Chris, John, and Ellen all go to Kim's room to find her ("The American Dream").

In her room, Kim tells Tam that he should be happy because he now has a father. She tells Tam not to forget her, and that she will be watching over him. Seeing Chris, Ellen, John and the Engineer approaching from a distance, she says goodbye to Tam and kisses him on the forehead. She goes behind a curtain and shoots herself. Chris, Ellen, the Engineer, and John all rush into the room at the sound of the gunshot and find Kim mortally wounded on the floor. Chris runs to Kim and holds her in his arms. Heartbroken, he asks Kim why she has shot herself, and she explains that the gods have guided him to his son. Chris begs her not to die, but she merely asks him to hold her one last time. She echoes a phrase uttered earlier when they first fell in love: "How in one night have we come so far?" As the others watch in horror, Kim dies in Chris's arms. Ellen kneels down and opens her arms to Tam ("Finale").

Awards

 


Tony Awards

 

Miss Saigon led the 1991 Tony Award nominations with 10 nominations. Predicted to be the clear winner for Best Musical, the show was upset by American musical, The Will Rogers Follies for nearly every major award. Though Lea Salonga, Jonathan Pryce and Hinton Battle all won awards, the night is often considered one of the greatest upsets in the history of musical theater.

 

Miss Saigon was nominated for and won the following Tony Awards in 1991:
Tony Award for Best Musical
Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical
Tony Award for Best Original Score
Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical
(Jonathan Pryce) WINNER
Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical
(Lea Salonga) WINNER
Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical
(Hinton Battle) WINNER
Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical (Willy Falk)
Tony Award for Best Scenic Design of a Musical
Tony Award for Best Lighting Design of a Musical
Tony Award for Best Choreography of a Musical
Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical
 

 

 

Drama Desk Awards
1991 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Actor in a Musical (Jonathan Pryce) WINNER
1991 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Actress in a Musical (Lea Salonga) WINNER
1991 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Orchestration (Willian D. Brohn) WINNER
1991 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Lighting Design (David Hersey) WINNER
 


1991 Theatre World Award (Lea Salonga) WINNER
 

Reviews for the Original Production

"Gripping entertainment." - New York Times

"A triumphantly vibrant, courageous work of musical theater." - Chicago Tribune

"One of the most richly melodious scores heard in two decades." - Gannett Newspapers

 

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